Section 8

Part 2

ARTERIOSCLEROSIS (Hardening of the Arteries) and ATHEROSCLEROSIS (Plaque Development and Hardening)

SYMPTOMS—Early warning symptoms are intermittent claudication (which see). These are pains in the legs and possibly feet, which leave upon resting. High blood pressure (see "Hypertension"). The later result is angina (chest pains) and heart attack.

CAUSES—These are two separate, major diseases, yet we list them together because the problems, effects, and solutions are so similar.

Arteriosclerosis is hardening of the walls of the arteries; atherosclerosis is the hardening of plaque on the walls, which causes the walls to harden. (The full explanation is somewhat more complicated.)

Hardened walls produce higher blood pressure, but plaque-hardened and narrow vessels does it also.

The end result of both is a heart attack.

The main difference between the two is that arteriosclerosis is primarily the hardened walls themselves (which the plaque especially produced). Whereas atherosclerosis is the thickening of that plaque in the arteries, so that the space for the blood to flow through keeps narrowing. In arteriosclerosis, these deposits are primarily composed of calcium; in atherosclerosis, the deposits consist of fatty substances, primarily cholesterol (a blood protein). But, much of the time, an odd assortment of both, along with lipoproteins, fatty acids, fibrous scar tissue, and blood clump together.

Both conditions have essentially the same effect on circulation, both cause hardening of the artery walls, both cause high blood pressure, and both eventually lead to one or more of the same things: angina (which is chest pain following exertion), heart attack (the heart muscle can no longer bear the lack of blood supply to it), and stroke (when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off). Death may or may not follow. The problem is that a clot of this plaque breaks loose, flows through the arteries, and gets stuck in a narrower artery. If this occurs in the heart muscle, angina and a heart attack may result; if in the brain, a stroke occurs.

To complicate the matter further, not only can arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis cause high blood pressure, but high blood pressure intensifies them both.

Causes include elevated cholesterol or triglyceride levels, eating high cholesterol foods (such as meat, eggs, whole milk, or milk products).

Other causes include smoking, hypertension (high blood pressure), obesity, diabetes, emotional stress, lack of exercise, or a family history of the disease. Advancing age increases the risk factor.

Pain in the legs (usually in the calf, but sometimes in the feet or elsewhere in the legs), which increase when walking but stops as soon as one rests, is intermittent claudication (which see). There may also be weakness, numbness, and a heavy feeling in the legs. This is a symptom of atherosclerosis in the limbs (peripheral atherosclerosis). There can also, but less often, be pain in the arms.

There is a home test you can do to help determine if this is beginning to occur: Test the pulse in your legs and foot. There are three places where this can be done: Apply light pressure on the top of the foot, the inner hollow of the ankle, and in the hollow behind the knee. If you feel no pulse, then the artery may be narrowing.

Atherosclerosis is the most common form of arterial disease in the U.S. and most frequently occurs in the lower limbs. It is the primary cause of death over the age of 65. Over 50% of the people between 65 and 70 will die of some form of this.


• Eat high fiber foods that are low in fat and cholesterol. Primarily eat fruits, vegetables, and grains. Dark green leafy vegetables are important. Wheat bran, and other particulate, fibers are not as effective as those in fruits, vegetables, and legumes.

• Eat foods rich in vitamin E. This includes nuts, seeds, and whole grains.

• Only use cold-pressed vegetable oils (soy, corn, wheat germ, flaxseed). Never heat these oils; place them on your food at the table.

• Avoid refined sugar. It has been shown to increase serum cholesterol levels, leading to atherosclerosis.

• Do not eat animal protein; there is a definite connection between eating it and cardiovascular disease.

• Do not eat processed, junk, dairy, white flour, spiced, or fried foods. Avoid pies, ice cream, salt, egg yolks, sugar, coffee, colas, nicotine, and alcohol.

• Garlic eaten with cholesterol foods tends to reduce the likelihood that cholesterol will clog the arteries.

• If you know you are moving toward artery problems, eat no free oils.

• Eggplant tends to lower cholesterol levels.

• Both peanut oil and coconut oil increase atherosclerosis.

• Drink only distilled water.

• Reduce stress and avoid situations causing it.

• Get regular moderate exercise. Walking every day is the best. Build up slowly, but keep at it.

• A strict vegetarian diet (without milk and eggs) is a good way to avoid artery problems.

• Research at the University of Wisconsin disclosed that skim milk did not lower blood cholesterol.

• Overweight people should reduce. Even 20% or more above ideal weight carries a significantly increased risk of atherosclerosis. What is your ideal weight? Assume 100 pounds for the first five feet; add to this five pounds for each inch over that, for women; add seven pounds per inch over that, for men.

• Do not smoke or use nicotine in any other form. Avoid second-hand smoke.

• Do not take shark cartilage. It may inhibit production of new blood vessels needed to increase blood circulation.

• Eliminate all environmental sources of metal poisoning, such as aluminum or copper cooking utensils, copper or lead plumbing, lead-glazed ceramics, contaminated water, etc. Toxic metals are known to be deposited, among other places, on artery walls.

• X-rays make premature arteriosclerosis more likely.

• Do not eat big evening meals. Best: Only eat plain fruit and plain bread for supper, and do this several hours before bedtime.

• Chromium (found in brewer's yeast, whole grains, and supplements) added to the diet lowers cholesterol.

• Keep the extremities warm, to maintain good circulation in them.

• Do not wear constrictive clothing (belts, garters, girdles, tight hosiery, etc.)

• Glucose intolerance can produce a 100% increased risk of atherosclerosis. Keep your blood sugar levels normal. Do not binge on sweets, etc.

• Avoid constipation, which weakens the liver and kidneys, which in turn sludges the blood. The Chinese treat stroke by treating constipation.

• Drink enough water!

• Periodically check your blood pressure.

• Too much vitamin D can elevate blood cholesterol.

—Also see "Triglycerides, Lowering"; "Cholesterol, Reducing"; Hypertension"; "Stroke"; and "Cardiac Problems."

ENCOURAGEMENT—He whose life consists in ever receiving and never giving soon loses the blessings he has. We must constantly seek to help others. Only in this way can God bless us.

HYPOTENSION (Low Blood Pressure)

SYMPTOMS—There are generally few symptoms which will tend to alert you to the problem. There may be headache, shortness of breath, dizziness, inability to concentrate, or digestive disturbances. There can be low energy and dizzy feelings when you stand up fast from a lying down or sitting position, fainting, blurred vision, palpitations, inability to solve simple problems, and slurring of speech.

CAUSES—The pressure at which the blood travels through the arteries is lower than normal, which means the blood is not circulating through the body quite as efficiently.

This is the "disease" which many people are thankful to have. High blood pressure can be a killer; low blood pressure is generally just something to live with.

A researcher who investigated the strange death of Pope John Paul I (who had low blood pressure and few other physical problems) asked 30 physicians and specialists whether low blood pressure would shorten life. Each one said it would tend to lengthen, rather than shorten, life expectancy.

For this reason, you will find that medical guides say relatively little about hypotension.

In some instances, low blood pressure is due to an impoverished diet, the existence of some chronic wasting disease, or some other condition that needs treatment on its own account. So it can be a symptom of some other problem (such as hypothyroidism, which see).

Hypotension can be caused by prescribed drugs, kidney disease, low blood sugar, food allergies, dehydration, adrenal exhaustion, or hypothyroidism.


• Treatment, if needed, should be aimed at locating and eliminating the problem that hypotension is a symptom of.

• Take vitamin C, to bowel tolerance, and eight glasses of water each day. Obtain adequate rest at night.

• Eat garlic; it tends to normalize blood pressure to the level it should properly be.

• You may want to do the morning temperature test to determine whether you are hypothyroid (see "Hypothyroidism").

• Helpful herbs include ginseng, spring adonis, and rosemary.

ENCOURAGEMENT—Those who are filled with the love of Christ will not seek to hide their connection with Him. They will openly rejoice in all He has done and tell others how He can answer their needs also.

HYPERTENSION (High Blood Pressure)

SYMPTOMS—There may be no symptoms; but, if they occur, they may include headache, difficulty in breathing, blurred vision, rapid pulse, or a feeling of dizziness.

Overweight, a ruddy complexion, and apparently robust health may be the only outward manifestations in a man 50 or 60, who may have systolic pressure as high as 200 or more.

Hypertension is called the "silent killer" because it so often reveals few symptoms.

CAUSES—High blood pressure is just that: The pressure of blood flow through the arteries is higher than it should be, and that pressure consistently remains higher.

A blood pressure gauge (sphygmomanometer) registers two readings: The first and higher one is the systolic; the second and lower one is the diastolic. The diastolic pressure occurs just before the heart beats, and is less important for determining blood pressure. But the systolic pressure reveals the pressure built up as the heart pumps blood out of the heart into the aorta (and thence through the arteries). High systolic pressure indicates that the cell walls are hardened and/or plaques are forming in the arteries, which are narrowing the passageways.

Average normal systolic blood pressure in an adult varies between 120 and 150 millimeters of mercury, and tends to increase with age. The arteries of older people tend to harden and thicken with age, and this produces the higher readings in later life.

The age, in relation to the figures, tells a lot: Systolic readings of 140-150 at 55 to 70 years of age need not be considered high; but, occurring in a man of 30, it points to a definite problem which needs attention.

Normal blood pressure readings for adults vary from 110/70 to 140/90 while readings of 140/90 to 160/90 or 160/95 indicate borderline hypertension. Any reading over 180/115 is far too elevated.

The hardening and clogging produces changes in the arteries, which produce hypertension, and are caused by aging, emotional stress, food, overeating, and heredity. Tobacco is another cause of hypertension, as is the taking of oral contraceptives. Drinking coffee or tea, drug abuse, and high sodium intake are other causes.

Hypertension can result in coronary artery disease, enlargement of the heart, or strokes. The acute infections (such as tonsillitis, scarlet fever, and typhoid fever), or focal infections from tonsils or teeth, sometimes lead to Bright's disease (a kidney disease), which is accompanied by high blood pressure. Sudden attacks of convulsions in pregnant women (eclampsia), and other kidney diseases of pregnancy, usually cause high blood pressure.

Primary hypertension (about 90% of the cases) do not have a direct cause. The rest (secondary hypertension) occurs as a result of other diseases. At any one time, about 10% of the people in America have primary hypertension. It affects over half of all people in the U.S. over 65. African-Americans have it more than a third more often than whites. Those who are 18-44 have it 18 times more often than whites. Women have hypertension less often than men until menopause is over; then, soon after, they have it as often.

Heavy snorers are more likely to have high blood pressure than silent sleepers.


• Habitual overeating, even of good food, will lead to hypertension. A person does not tend to overeat on healthfully prepared natural foods.

• Excessive protein food, sweats, rich pastry, and desserts must be omitted; but the reduction of all foods is especially important.

• Do not use salt; this is essential for lowering blood pressure. Read the labels: Many foods contain sodium. Look for "salt," "sodium," "soda," or "Na" on the label. Also avoid MSG (monosodium glutamate), baking soda, saccharin, soy sauce, diet soft drinks, preservatives, meat tenderizers, and softened water.

• Only drink distilled water.

• Eliminate all dairy products, for they are high in sodium.

• Do not use processed meats or canned vegetables.

• Stress, fear, anger, and pain increases blood pressure. Adequate daily outdoor exercise helps reduce the effects of stress.

• Eat a high-fiber diet. Include oat bran; it appears to be the very best type for the purposes you have in mind.

• For oil, take 2 tbsp. flaxseed oil daily.

• Use no animal fat of any kind; it is best to avoid meat, since there is so much of it in meat.

• Do not eat chocolate, alcohol, avocados, aged cheeses, and yogurt.

• Include supplemental calcium in your diet.

• Avoid more than 400 units of vitamin D daily.

• Drink fresh vegetable juices.

• Garlic definitely lowers blood pressure. Actually, it tends to normalize it. In those with low blood pressure, it raises it. Fresh, raw garlic is the best.

• Obtain sufficient rest at night; do not eat later than several hours before bedtime.

• Do a pulse test in order to ascertain offending foods you are allergic to (see "Pulse Test").

• If you are pregnant, check your blood pressure regularly.

• Do not take antihistamines.

• Do not take supplements containing the amino acids tyrosine or phenylalanine.

• Keep your weight down! Loss of weight lowers blood pressure. If you are overweight and have high blood pressure, you would do well fasting one or two days a week.

• When the situation is critical, special care must be given to produce successful recovery:

• Adequate rest, both physical and mental, is needed, though mild exercise is beneficial to those with moderate hypertension. Even the visits of friends and relatives may have to be restricted or prohibited for a time.

• Gradually start mild exercise. Walk out-of-doors and gradually (slowly!) build up the amount of time spent in outdoor walking.

• All blood pressure medications tend to have negative effects. Moderate exercise, rest, sleep, and proper diet will provide better help.

• No vigorous or tonic hydrotherapy, or even massage, should be used. The neutral bath and complete bed rest is needed.

• One recommended program is fruit and rice, alone, for 1-2 weeks.

ENCOURAGEMENT—God can help you overcome the sins which so easily beset you. He can give you enabling grace to obey the Ten Commandments and remain true to Him, in spite of the compromise and wickedness in our world.

STROKE—1 (Apoplexy)

SYMPTOMS—Light headedness, fainting, stumbling, blurring of vision, loss of speech or memory, numbness or paralysis of a finger, coma for short or long periods.

CAUSES—There are four possible patterns which can result in a stroke:

An embolism is a clot that breaks loose and travels on up toward the brain, where the clot gets stuck in a smaller artery leading to the brain. This briefly cuts off blood flow to a portion of the brain.

A thrombus is a clot inside the brain which blocks the flow of blood to the brain.

An aneurysm is a portion of an artery that balloons outward. Filled with blood, this weak spot bursts.

A hemorrhage is a damaged artery within the brain which bursts.

Sometimes a tumor, not a clot, is blocking an artery supplying the brain.

Whatever the cause, the result is local brain tissue death from lack of oxygen and food.

If the damaged area is small enough, the brain will reroute the affected brain functions to other areas of the brain, as a period of relearning and compensation occurs.


• So many toxins flow into the blood stream, when the bowel is constipated, that Chinese medical practitioners prevent strokes and also treat them by eliminating constipation (see "Constipation").

• Aneurysms are often caused by copper deficiency which results in weakened elastic fibers. Once the damage occurs, supplementation with copper cannot repair it, but the copper can help prevent aneurysms from occurring (2-4 mg/day).

• Surgery will be required for existing aneurysms.

• The varied causes and suggested treatments of clots, artery problems, high blood pressure, and related problems resulting in strokes are explained in some detail in the following articles: "Triglycerides, Lowering"; "Cholesterol, Reducing"; Hypertension"; "Arteriosclerosis and Atherosclerosis"; and "Cardiac Problems."

—Also see "Stroke—2."

ENCOURAGEMENT—Be faithful, and God will give you a crown of life. Study the Bible, obey it, and do all in your power to be an encouragement and help to others.

STROKE—2 (J.H. Kellogg, M.D., Formulas)

DURING ATTACK—Rest, head and shoulders raised; Cold Compress to head; Tepid Enema; warm extremities by Hot Water Bottles or Hot Pack. Ice Collar.

AFTER ATTACK—Cold Mitten Friction twice daily; well- protected Hot Abdominal Pack night and day; carefully graduated Cold Baths; prolonged Neutral Bath; Wet Sheet Pack. Later, carefully begin graduated exercises; massage; Cold or Alternate Douche to affected muscles.

—Also see "Stroke—1."


PROBLEMS—The two major sources of fat in your bloodstream are cholesterol and triglycerides. Both are necessary. Cholesterol helps build strong cells, and triglycerides provide energy.

But if either is too high, problems develop.

High cholesterol levels clog arteries. High triglycerides cause vascular disease also, if they are associated with low levels of HDL cholesterol (the good cholesterol). You then have fat particles in your blood which can ultimately be bad for your heart.

You can control your triglyceride level, and you want to keep it below 150.

SOLUTIONS—Here are several ways to do it:

Cut down on the amount of fat in your diet. Reduce total fat intake to less than 30% of daily calories; but, even better, reduce it to 20%. Reduce saturated fats to 10%.

Eat a lot of complex carbohydrates. Races doing this do not have a triglyceride problem. Cook rice, beans, and other grains without including fat in the cooking or the serving.

Do not eat candy, sweets, and sugar. Eating such simple carbohydrates in the diet are a significant factor in causing people to have high triglyceride levels.

Put more fiber in the diet. A low fiber, high sweet, diet is even worse than high sweets alone.

Lose weight. Even losing 10 pounds can reduce triglycerides in those who are 20-30% overweight. Ultimately, try to maintain a weight that is not over 5-10% above what is normal for your age-weight range.

Do not drink alcohol; it decidedly increases triglycerides.

Exercise is very helpful in lowering triglyceride levels. Studies reveal that it does this—even when weight is not lowered in the process.

Go on a rice diet for a couple days. In 1944, Dr. Walter Kempner discovered that a rice diet would dramatically lower triglycerides.

This is a diet of rice and fruit alone, and no other food, for 2-3 days or as long as you can stand to remain on it. The diet is not appetizing, but it really works. One patient went down from 1,000 mg/dl to 117 mg/dl in a couple months. In just 2-3 days, triglycerides will go down a fair amount. Then, later, you can do it again for another couple days.

By the way, when you do this, you will lose a some weight also. The rice/fruit diet is practically fat-free.

But do not remain on a rice diet! It does not provide adequate nutriments.

ENCOURAGEMENT—Do not dwell on your difficulties, so they get bigger and bigger. Instead, think on the love of Christ and plead with Him for the help you need. Be trustful and obedient, and He will give you the best answers.


PROBLEMS—Here are some facts about cholesterol, to help you understand the situation:

Dietary cholesterol is in the food you eat. Most of it is found in eggs and meat. One egg has 275 mg, and an apple has none.

Serum cholesterol is in your bloodstream. This is what your physician measures. Ideally, it should be under 200. There are two types of serum cholesterol:

HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol cleans the arteries and is good for you. The higher it is, the better.

LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol clogs the arteries and is bad for you. The lower it is, the better.

SOLUTIONS—Here are several ways to lower the amount of LDL cholesterol in your blood:

Do not eat saturated fat. This is the kind in meat, butter, cheese, and hydrogenated oil—which is the worst kind of oil or fat, since it raises blood cholesterol the most.

Only include polyunsaturated fat in your meals. It lowers blood cholesterol. This kind is only found in certain vegetable oils, such as corn oil, soy oil, wheat germ oil, and flaxseed oil. Only buy cold-pressed oil—never, never hydrogenated oil (even partially hydrogenated oil). Never put cottonseed oil into your body.

The very best oils for your health are wheat germ oil and flaxseed oil. Prepare your meals without oil, fat, or grease. Then add a spoonful or two of wheat germ oil or flaxseed oil to the food after it has been dished onto your plate. In this way, you can carefully measure how much you get, and you ensure that the oil was not cooked.

It is safe to use monounsaturated oils. These include olive oil and certain other foods, such as nuts, avocados, canola oil, and peanut oil. It now known that this also lowers blood cholesterol. Monounsaturated oils lower cholesterol faster than low-fat diets do, and the type they selectively lower is the bad LDL.

Do not eat fried food, fatty food, meat, or vegetable loafs, etc. Do not eat processed or junk food. Do not eat regular peanut butter. The peanut oil has been taken out, and cheap, hydrogenated oils (sometimes lard) is put in its place. Only buy peanut butter from a health food store. You can open the lid and smell the difference. Learn how to smell good food. Do not eat corn chips, crackers, and other snack foods.

Eggs contain a lot of cholesterol (275 mg per egg), yet studies reveal that, in most people, they do not appreciably raise cholesterol levels.

Eat more fruit and beans. Both have pectin, which surrounds cholesterol and takes it out of the body. Pectin is in all kinds of beans and fruit. Carrots also help lower cholesterol, because of their pectin content. Cabbage, broccoli, and onions also have calcium pectate.

Oat bran lowers cholesterol in the same way that pectin does it. Make oat bran muffins, and eat one or two every day. Oatmeal is also effective.

You need 6 grams of soluble fiber every day. Corn and wheat bran are also useful.

Fresh garlic lowers cholesterol, but not cooked or deodorized garlic. It is said that Kyolic may also lower cholesterol.

Psyllium seed also lowers cholesterol.

Exercise does it too. Vigorous exercise raise HDL and lowers LDL levels.

Do not drink coffee, use tobacco, or drink. Avoid drugs of all kinds.

Here are other things found to lower cholesterol: barley, spirulina, lemongrass oil, and activated charcoal.

Vitamins C, E, and niacin also lower cholesterol, along with calcium.

ENCOURAGEMENT—We are to love God not only with mind and heart, but with the strength also. We are to treat our bodies carefully, for we belong to God.


SYMPTOMS—Phlebitis: Reddening and cord-like swelling of the vein, increased pulse rate, slight fever, and pain accompanying movement of the afflicted area.

Superficial thrombophlebitis: The affected vein can be felt and feels harder than normal veins. It may appear as a reddish line under the skin, possibly accompanied by pain, localized swelling, and tender to the touch.

Deep thrombophlebitis: Pain, warmth, and swelling, with possible bluish discoloration of the skin of the limb it is in. Sometimes there is fever and chills. The pain frequently feels like a deep soreness that intensifies when standing or walking, and lessens when sitting or, especially, when the legs are elevated. Very often the deep vein in the thigh is involved.

CAUSES—Phlebitis is the inflammation of a vein wall, usually occurs in the legs, and occurs more often in women than men. It can be a complication of varicose veins (which see). It can be caused by childbirth, infections resulting from injuries to the veins, and operations. Infections in the legs, feet, and toes must be given immediate attention (especially if a fungal origin is involved).

There are two types of thrombophlebitis. The first is superficial thrombophlebitis, which affects a subcutaneous vein near the surface of the skin. This is generally not serious and many experience it. But if there is widespread vein involvement, the lymphatic vessels may also become inflamed, and fluids may collect.

The superficial type can result from infection, lack of exercise, standing for long periods, infection, and intravenous drug use.

Obesity, varicose veins, pregnancy, allergies, environmental chemicals, injury, and smoking can increase the risk.

Deep thrombophlebitis, also known as deep venous thrombosis (DVT), is more serious. It affects muscular veins far below the surface, which are much larger, and can often come after confinement. The reduced blood flow can produce chronic venous insufficiency, evinced by pigmentation, skin rash, or ulceration. But sometimes there are no symptoms. The risk of DVT rapidly increases after the age of 40, and triples with the passing of each decade after it.

Even though the person remains in bed until the swelling subsides, it will return slightly when he gets out of bed. Very little standing or exercise should be permitted while any swelling persists.

If the opening in the vein, in the thigh, is narrowed too much by the phlebitis (and nearly always if it is entirely clogged), varicose veins will appear lower down on the leg.

Blood Clots: Blood clots can be very dangerous. The origin of a clot is generally unknown. But it can form, following an injury to the inside lining of a blood vessel. This initiates clotting, which is part of the repair process. Blood platelets clump together to protect the injured area. Fibrogen arrives and entraps blood cells, plasma, and more platelets, which make a blood clot to protect the weakened wall.

If a clot forms, it can break off and travel to a vital organ. Massage or rubbing may cause part of the clot to be dislodged and pass to other parts of the body, especially the lungs, causing serious damage or death. If there is any possibility that the person might have blood clots, he should not receive massage.


• If a swollen, painful vein does not disappear within 2 weeks, consult a physician.

• Include niacin in the diet. This B vitamin helps prevent clotting. Vitamin C helps strengthen the walls of veins and arteries. Vitamin E dilates blood vessels, reducing the formation of varicose veins and phlebitis.

• Eat a good nourishing diet of fruits, vegetables, raw nuts, seeds, legumes, and whole grains.

• Do not eat fried, salty, processed foods; dairy products; or hydrogenated vegetable oils. Do not eat meat.

• A high-protein diet increases blood-clotting factors.

• Use enough fiber in the diet, so you do not have to strain at the stool. Straining increases venous pressure on the legs.

• Maintain a low-fat diet and drink enough water.

• It is now known that food allergies can be involved. Search them out and eliminate them.

• Get regular moderate exercise. This is important. Walking is the best. Regular exercise increases the body's ability to dissolve clots.

• Avoid dangling the feet. Pressure against the popliteal vessels may cause obstruction of blood flow. Do not cross your legs.

• Deep breathing or singing helps empty out the large veins, thus increasing venous circulation.

• Quit tobacco. If you smoke, and seem to keep having recurring phlebitis, you may have Buerger's disease (which see). Its symptoms are severe pain and blood clots, usually in the legs. Smoking constricts the blood vessels.

• Superficial phlebitis inflammation generally is reduced within 7-10 days, but it may be 3-6 weeks for the problem to be entirely gone. It can be treated by elevating the leg and applying warm, moist heat to the area. It is not necessary to rest in bed; but, every so often, rest with the leg 6-10 inches above the heart. This speeds the healing process.

• Take alternating hot and cold sitz baths or apply alternating hot and cold compresses.

• Lie on a slant board with your feet higher than your head for 15 minutes a day, especially if you stand on your feet a lot.

• Do not wear anything tight about the waist, or bands on the legs.

• If you have to travel a distance by car, stop and walk around every so often. Do not let the circulation become sluggish. When it enters a low-flow state, that can lead to a clot.

• Beware of "economy class syndrome." A remarkable number of people who fly in the cramped economy class seats of jets develop thromboplebitis. You are confined to your seat more on planes than in cars or boats. So request an aisle seat and get up every 30 minutes and walk up and down the aisles.

• Wherever you may be, do not sit more than an hour at a time, without getting up and walking around.

• Better yet, every hour exercise the legs for 2 minutes, as if you are riding a bike (lifting the legs), and breathe deep, in and out, 15 times.

• Walking barefoot improves venous blood flow.

• If they help you feel better, use elastic stockings (antiembolism stockings).

• Do not squat (sit back on your heels), except momentarily.

• If you have a history of phlebitis or blood clots, do not take the birth control pill. It will increase the likelihood of deep vein thrombophlebitis by 3-4 times.

• Once you have had phlebitis, or clots of any type, you can have it again. Surgery or prolonged bed rests increase the likelihood that you will have another attack. Keep that in mind when you consider elective surgery.

• Fasting decreases blood coagulation, and can be beneficial when needed.

• If you have to lie in bed for a time, move your legs every so often, to increase circulation. Elevate the foot of your bed several inches, to reduce venous pressure in your legs. This also reduces edema and pain. Do not use pillows under the legs, for doing so elevates the knee above the digestive organs and reduces circulation.

—Also see "Varicose Veins."

ENCOURAGEMENT—Thank God every day for the many blessings you have. Determine that you will remain true to Him. By His enabling grace, resist temptations and obey His moral law.


SYMPTOMS—Visibly distended veins. There may be aching or tiredness, a feeling of fullness in the limbs. The skin may have a tense or burning sensation. Muscle cramps may occur, especially at night. Hemorrhage under the skin may cause the skin to discolor (light brown to bluish). Veins may be abnormally large, bulging, and lumpy looking.

CAUSES—The valves of the veins no longer function properly. They become stretched from excess pressure. The deep veins are surrounded by muscles which keep them in shape. But those close to the surface (saphenous veins) are ones which develop these problems.

Contraceptive medications can induce varicose veins, as well as hormonal vasodilation just prior to menstruation. They can occur during pregnancy (especially during the first 3 months).

Straining at the stool, because of the lack of dietary fiber, causes constipation and can result in varicose veins, diverticulosis, hemorrhoids, phlebitis, and hiatus hernia.


• Follow the lengthy suggestions given under "Phlebitis and Thrombophlebitis."

ENCOURAGEMENT—God does not accept men because of their capabilities, but because they seek His face, desiring His help. God sees not as man sees. He judges not from appearances, but He searches the heart. Only with His help can you have purity of life, and this you must do.

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