1 - According to the theory, older stars should have more heavy elements because they are continually making them. But the so-called "older stars" have been found to have no more heavy elements than the so-called "younger stars." All stars, from "young" to "old," have the same amount of heavy elements.
2 - The theory says that gas floating in interstellar space is leftover from the Big Bang, and can only consist of hydrogen and helium. But *Rubins has shown that this is not true. Extra-galactic gas has a variety of heavier elements in it.
3 - The theory says that the super-fast particles, hurled outward by the Big Bang, were evenly radiated. Yet, as scientists have noted, a perfectly smooth cosmic explosion would only have produced perfectly smooth, increasingly rarified (ever farther apart) particles. So the very existence of stars disproves the theorized original giant explosion.
4 - The theory requires a continual rush of particles outward—leaving nothing inside this outer parimeter of outflowing matter. Yet there are stars and galaxies all through space, not just at the outer edge. Even if clumped gas could have formed any stars, everything would continue to be hurled to the thin, outer edges of space—with an expanding center containing nothing.
5 - According to the theory, the farther we look out into space, the farther back into past eons of time we are gazing. This means that the farthest stars and galaxies ought to be the youngest. Yet research reveals the farthest stars are just like those nearby.
6 - Angular momentum is another serious problem. Why do stars turn? Why do galaxies rotate? Why do planets orbit stars? Why do binary stars circle one another? How could the super-fast linear (straight line) motion, started by the supposed Big Bang, have changed into rotation (spinning or revolving motion) and revolutions (orbiting motion)? How could angular momentum exist—and in such perfectly balanced orbits throughout space? There is no possible way that floating gas could transform itself into rotating and orbiting objects, like stars, planets, and moons.
7 - Inward pushing gas would not change to a rotating star. According to the theory, stars were formed by the "inward gravitational collapse of hydrogen gas clouds." If so, why do the resultant stars rotate? Some stars rotate very fast. If ten people in a circle pushed marbles in toward a common center, the marbles would not begin rotating or circling after they reached it.
8 - Matter-origin theories cannot explain why stars spin. The theorists tell us that stars somehow started spinning; but, with age, they slow down. Yet some stars spin faster than either "younger" or "older" stars. Some spin once in less than an earth-day. The fastest, Hz 1883, has a spin period of only 6 hours.
9 - Some stars orbit backward to that of other stars. The theorists cannot explain this.
10 - There are high-velocity stars that are traveling far too fast to accommodate the evolutionary theories of matter and stellar origins.
11 - If the Big Bang theory were true, all stars would move in the same direction; but stars, clusters, and galaxies are moving in various directions opposite to one another. (More about the expanding universe theory later.)
12 - Evidence is accumulating that the entire universe is rotating! This is angular momentum on the most gigantic of proportions. Yet the Big Bang should only have produced linear movement outward from it.
13 - Theorists are deeply bothered by, what they call, the "lumpy" problem. The universe is "lumpy"; that is, it has stars, planets, etc. in it. Yet none should exist if the Big Bang theory were true. They argue fiercely over these problems in their professional journals, while assuring the public the theory is accepted by all astrophysicists. They consider this to be a major unsolved problem.
"As IBM’s Philip E. Seiden, put it: ‘The standard Big Bang model does not give rise to lumpiness. That model assumes the universe started out as a globally smooth, homogeneous expanding gas. If you apply the laws of physics to this model, you get a universe that is uniform, a cosmic vastness of evenly distributed atoms with no organization of any kind.’ No galaxies, no stars, no planets, no nothing. Needless to say, the night sky, dazzling in its lumps, clumps, and clusters, says otherwise. How then did the lumps get there? No one can say."—*Ben Patrusky, "Why is the Cosmos ‘Lumpy’?" Science 81, June 1981, p. 96.
14 - The universe is full of stars, with relatively little gas. But it should be the other way around: full of gas and no stars. The Big Bang should have produced a "homogeneous" universe of smooth gas ever flowing outward with, at best, almost no "inhomogeneities," or "lumps" such as stars and island universes.
15 - The universe is full of super clusters. These are the biggest "lumps" of all. It has recently been discovered that the galaxies are grouped into galaxy clusters, and these into still larger super clusters. The "Big Bangers," as their colleagues call them, excuse the problem by saying that "gravity waves" produced the galaxies. But gravity, in any form, could not press floating hydrogen and helium into a star or planet out of gas, make a marvelously organized disk network of stars, or produce the precisely balanced spinning and orbiting of planets and stars.
"The main efforts of investigators have been in papering over holes in the Big Bang theory, to build up an idea that has become ever more complex and cumbersome . . I have little hesitation in saying that a sickly pall now hangs over the Big Bang theory. When a pattern of facts becomes set against a theory, experience shows that the theory rarely recovers."—*Sir Fred Hoyle, "The Big Bang Theory under Attack," Science Digest, May 1984, p. 84.
16 - Solar collapse, not nuclear fusion has been found to be the cause of solar energy. But that would undercut the entire theory of the Big Bang. We will briefly summarize the data here. You will find it discussed more fully (along with additional quotations) in the chapter, Origin of the Stars, in our 3-volume set on our website. It is also partially referred to in "6 - Solar Collapse" in the Age of the Earth chapter in this paperback.
There is evidence that our sun "shines," not by hydrogen explosions, but by solar collapse. Yet stellar evolution is keyed to the fact that stars are fueled by (shine because of) hydrogen explosions (nuclear fusion). The amount of mass/energy our sun would have to lose daily amounts to 4 million tons [3.6 million mt] a second. The problem is the fusion process should produce lots of sub-atomic particles called neutrinos, and each square inch of earth’s surface should be hit each second by a trillion neutrinos. Scientists have neutrino detectors in place and have searched for them since the mid-1970s, but hardly any arrive from the sun. This fact alone would appear to disprove the hydrogen theory of solar energy (cf. *J.H. Bahcall, Astronomical Journal, 76:283, 1971). *Corliss, the world leader in tracking down scientific anomalies, considers the "missing neutrinos" to be "one of the most significant anomalies in astronomy" (*W.R. Corliss, Stars, Galaxies, Cosmos, 1987, p. 40). It was not until the 1930s that the nuclear theory of starlight was developed by *Hans Bethe and *Carl von Weizsacker. Yet it remains a theory. In contrast, there is strong evidence pointing to solar collapse as the true cause of solar energy.
The scientific basis for solar collapse, as the source of solar energy, was developed over a century ago by two brilliant scientists: Hermann von Helmholtz and Lord Kelvin. If each star is slowly contracting, great amounts of energy would be constantly released. But evolutionists cannot accept this possibility, because it would mean the universe (and the earth) is much younger. Nuclear fusion would mean billions of years for a star’s life; solar collapse only a few million. A change in the radius of our sun of about 80 feet [24.27 m] a year is all that would be necessary to produce our sun’s actual energy release. This is a radius shrinkage of only .009 feet [.27 cm] per hour.
Some scientists have found evidence of solar collapse. One major study was done by *John A. Eddy and *Aram Boornazian (*New Scientist, March 3, 1983, p. 592). The basis for this is an analysis of solar transit measurements, made at the Royal Greenwich Observatory since 1836 and the U.S. Naval Observatory since 1846. It was calculated that the sun is shrinking at the rate of 5 ft/hr in diameter (0.1% per century, 2 arc-sec/century). They also analyzed solar eclipses for the past four centuries. A separate report by *Ronald Gilliland confirmed the *Eddy and *Boornazian report (*op. cit., p. 593)
"The sun has been contracting about 0.1% per century . . corresponding to a shrinkage rate of about 5 feet per hour [15.24 dm]."—*G.B. Lublihn, Physics Today, Vol. 32, No. 17, 1979.
The above findings would indicate that our sun’s output of radiant energy is generated by this shrinkage and not by hydrogen explosions (thermonuclear fusion) deep within it. As already mentioned, if hydrogen was the solar fuel, we should be receiving a very large quantity of neutrinos; yet almost none are detected.
Jupiter is also apparently contracting, because it is giving off more heat than it receives from the sun. A surface contraction of just one centimeter per year would account for the measured heat flow from Jupiter. A similar situation exists for Saturn.
"Jupiter . . radiates twice as much energy as it absorbs from the sun through a contraction and cooling process."—*Star Date radio broadcast, November 8, 1990.
"Saturn emits 50% more heat than it absorbs from the sun."—*Science Frontiers, No. 73, January-February 1991.
These facts are known; but, in order to defend evolutionary theory, the decision has been made to stick with solar fusion (hydrogen explosions) as the cause of solar energy and sunshine.
"Astronomers were startled, and laymen amazed, when in 1979 Jack Eddy, of the High Altitude Observatory in Boulder, Colorado, claimed that the sun was shrinking at such a rate that, if the decline did not reverse, our local star would disappear within a hundred million years."—*John Gribbin, "The Curious Case of the Shrinking Sun," New Scientist, March 3, 1983.
"Geological evidence, however, indicates that the terrestrial crust [our earth’s rock strata] has an age of several billion years, and it is surely to be expected that the sun is at least as old as the earth . . We must conclude that . . another source must be responsible for most of the energy output of a star."—*Eva Novotny, Introduction to Stellar Atmospheres and Interiors (1973), p. 248.
Summarizing solar collapse: The evidence that hydrogen explosions (thermonuclear fusion) is the cause of solar energy (sunshine) would be a great abundance of neutrino radiation. But that evidence is missing. The evidence that solar collapse (gradual shrinkage) is the cause has been definitely found. Evolutionists reject solar collapse as the cause, (1) since it would mean our sun and the universe could not be more than a few million years old; (2) their cosmology theories would be wrong and (3) the Big Bang theory would be gutted.
Is there no evidence that supports the Big Bang theory? Evolutionists are able to point to only TWO. Here they are:
The fact—There is a faint amount of heat radiating throughout outer space. It is called background radiation. Since it comes uniformly from all directions, it is believed to exist throughout the universe. It is a very small amount of "heat": in fact, only 2.73o K above absolute zero (0o K, which is -270 o C or -454 oF).
The theory—Background radiation (also called microwave radiation), first discovered in 1965, is said to be the single, best evidence that the Big Bang occurred. It is said to be the leftover remains, the last remnant, from the Big Bang explosion.
Scientists said that background radiation would prove the theory in four ways: (1) It would come from only one direction—the Big Bang source. (2) It would have the right radiational strength to match the Big Bang mathematical theory. (3) It would emit the proper spectrum. (4) It would not be a smooth radiation.
But we find that, if this is the best evidence that the theorists can produce for their speculation, it surely is weak.
1 - It is omnidirectional. Background radiation comes from every direction instead of one. The Big Bang theory requires that it come from only one direction—from where the Big Bang occurred. Since its discovery, scientists have been unable to match its directional radiation (its isotropy) with the Big Bang predictions. Its omnidirectionality tells where the background radiation is coming from: "Background radiation" is actually a slight amount of heat given off by stars throughout the universe. Would they not be expected to emit a very faint amount of heat into outer space?
2 - The radiation does not fit the theory, for it is too weak. It should be far more powerful than it is. *Fred Hoyle, a leading 20th-century astrophysicist, said it should have been much stronger.
3 - Background radiation lacks the proper spectrum. It does not have the ideal "black body" (total light absorption) capacity which would agree with the *Max Planck calculation. This radiation does not fit the theoretical 2.7K black body spectrum required for the Big Bang theory.
4 - The spectrum should be far hotter than it is. The heat emitted by the radiation should have a far higher temperature. The radiation should emit a 100oK black body radiation spectrum, which is far greater than the 2.73o K spectrum it now has.
5 - Background radiation is too smooth. The theory requires that it be much more irregular and "lumpy" (with "density fluctuations") in order for it to explain how stars could be formed from the Big Bang explosion. In recent years, some slight variations in smoothness have been detected, but this is still not enough to fit the theory.
"It seems difficult to believe that, whereas visible matter is conspicuously clumpy and clustered on all scales, the invisible intergalactic gas is uniform and homogeneous."—*G. de Vaucouleurs, "The Case for a Hierarchical Cosmology," Science 167, p. 1203.
"The problem was to reconcile the apparent evenness of the early expansion, as indicated by the steady background radiation, with the observed large-scale structures [stars, planets, etc.]. A perfectly smooth cosmic explosion would have produced only an increasingly rarified [ever thinner] gas cloud."—*Peter Pocock and *Pat Daniels, Galaxies (1988), p. 117.
6 - All of the above points (omnidirectionality, very slight amount of heat, general smoothness, with radiative fluctuations in strength) is what we would expect from radiational heat from the multiplied billions of stars throughout the universe. It would be understandable for all those stars to emit a slight amount of uniform, omnidirectional radiative heat. And we would expect the radiational heat emitted by the stars should, at great distances, show very slight fluctuations. Does not each one send forth both heat and occasional gigantic solar flares into space? If you do not believe stars emit heat into space, then you do not believe the sun keeps you warm.
The fact—Relatively white light can be split by a triangular prism of glass into all the colors of the rainbow. Using a spectrometer, this can be done to starlight. Dark, vertical bands mark the spectrum at various points. Analyzing these dark bands, the type of elements in each star can be ascertained. Spectral type is a star’s classification— based on its spectrum, surface temperature, and mass. A spectrogram is a photograph of a star’s spectrum. Spectroscopy is the study of spectra.
Ultraviolet is on one end of a spectrum and has a higher frequency and shorter wavelength than visible blue light. Infrared is the other end of the visible spectrum (astronomers call it "red").
Every star is redshifted to some extent (that is, the entire spectrum of that star is moved toward the red end). The farther a star or galaxy is from us, the more its light is shifted. This displacement is called the redshift.
The theory—The "Big Bangers" (as scientists call them) theorize that this redshift shows that the universe is expanding outward from the source of the Big Bang explosion. They base this on the hypothesis that the "speed theory" of the redshift is the only cause of the redshift. This means that if light is traveling toward us, the wavelength is slightly compressed or shortened. This would cause the light to be "blueshifted" (shifted toward the ultraviolet). If it is moving away from us, the wavelength is stretched out, which causes a redshift (shifted toward the infrared).
"This redshift, observed in the spectral lines of distant galaxies and interpreted as a Doppler [speed] effect, is the key to cosmology."—*Carl Sagan, Cosmos, p. 252.
What causes the redshift? It is quite obvious that the distance of the star from us has something to do with the redshift. Here are FOUR scientific explanations for the redshift, each of which are accepted by various scientists:
• The Speed redshift (also called the Doppler theory of redshift): This would occur if the star were moving away from us. Evolutionists say all the stars are moving away from us, and that there is no other cause for the recorded redshifts. But there are three other possibilities:
• Gravitational redshifts: The pull of gravity on light rays would cause a loss of energy in the beam of moving light. In 1915, *Albert Einstein predicted that gravity could bend light—and that it would cause a redshift. This was later proved to be true. As light travels toward us from distant stars, it passes other stars, which slightly slows the beam, causing its spectrum to shift toward the red.
"Einstein’s views of gravity led to the prediction that light emitted by a source possessing a very strong gravitational field should be displaced toward the red (the Einstein shift)."—*Isaac Asimov, Asimov’s New Guide to Science, 1984, p. 50.
Yet, in order to bolster their Big Bang and expanding universe theories, evolutionists ignore gravitational, second-order Doppler, and energy-loss shifts.
• Second-order Doppler shift: A light source moving at right angles to an observer will always be redshifted. This would occur if the universe were moving slowly in a vast circle around a common center. We know that every body in the universe is orbiting and, at the same time, moving in some direction with its orbital body. Much of that movement is at right angles to us.
• Energy-loss shift: Light waves could themselves directly lose energy as they travel across long distances. This would nicely explain why the farthest stars from us have the most dramatic redshifts. This is also called the tired-light redshift.
Big Bang theorists maintain that the speed redshift is the ONLY cause of the redshift,—because they can then say that the universe is expanding outward as a result of the Big Bang.
But the evidence reveals that the speed redshift theory—as the ONLY cause of the redshift—is wrong:
1 - Nearly all the stars and galaxies are redshifted. This fact agrees with the gravitational-loss, second-order Doppler, and energy-loss redshifts. But, if only the speed theory is accepted as the cause of this,—nearly all the universe is moving away from us—our planet! A true expanding universe theory would mean that everything was moving outward from a common center somewhere else, not from our planet. If the Big Bang really occurred, the universe would be rushing outward from where the explosion occurred,—not from our planet! Example: A bomb explodes in outer space, hurling shrapnel in every direction. Some pieces would be flying in our direction while others traveled in other directions. This differential could be measured. Some pieces would be flying toward us, others sideways, and others away from us. If there was a Big Bang, we could locate its origin by measuring redshifts. But, instead, we only find evidence that everything in space is redshifted; that is, everything is supposedly moving away from us. This point disproves both the Big Bang and the expanding universe theory.
2 - The closest stars and galaxies are the least redshifted, and some of the closest stars are actually moving toward us—yet still seem redshifted. The farther that starlight has to travel before reaching us, the more those two types of shifts would slow it.
3 - There is evidence that photons (light particles) do slow down. This would be nicely explained by gravitational and energy-loss redshifts.
4 - Quasars strongly disprove the speed theory of redshift. They are unknown objects which show drastically shifted spectrums toward the red. Yet, if the speed theory is accepted as the cause of those shifts, they would be at impossibly great distances from us. Some have redshifts of 200 and 300 percent! This would equal distances up to 12 billion light-years and recession (moving away from us) speeds exceeding 90 percent of the speed of light! Many astronomers renounced the speed theory when they learned this. But then came the discovery of quasars with even higher redshifts: 300-400 percent! Ultimately, they found three quasars which, according to the speed theory, are moving faster than the speed of light! One of these is eight times faster than the speed of light! In a desperate attempt to save their theory, the evolutionists recalculated the "Hubble constant," which is the formula for the speed of light. But they are unable to change it. Now they really have a quandary on their hands! As *Vincent A. Ettari wrote, "An increase of 100 percent in the Hubble constant would decrease the computed age of the universe by 50 percent."—And the evolutionists cannot accept that!
5 - Light has weight. Some suggest that light and gravity could not affect one another. But *Einstein was right: Light can be pulled by gravity because it has weight. Because light has weight, it can be pulled by matter and push it! Because light has weight, stars it passes pull on it, slightly redshifting it.
"If a set of fine scales is arranged so that one scale is kept dark, and light is allowed to fall on the other, the lighted scale will sink slowly. Light has ‘weight.’ The pressure of light on the Earth’s surface is calculated as two pounds per square mile [90 kg per 2.6 km 2]."—*Isaac Asimov, Asimov’s Book of Facts (1979), p. 330.
6 - No one has ever seen a blue-shifted stellar light spectrum. This nicely agrees with the alternate redshift theories (gravitational, second-order Doppler, and energy-loss) of redshift. Even nearby stars, which we think are moving toward us, are very slightly redshifted. But, if the speed theory is the only cause of redshifts, every star in the universe is actually moving away from us! Why should we be the center of this expanding universe?
On pages 67-68 of his book, Asimov’s New Guide to Science, *Isaac Asimov, a confirmed evolutionist, lists 10 reasons why quasars do not agree with the speed theory of light. (We quote that lengthy section on our website.)