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Chapter 1b:

History of Evolutionary Theory

How modern science got into this problem

*Thomas Huxley (1825-1895) was the man *Darwin called "my bulldog." *Darwin was so frail in health that he did not make public appearances, but remained secluded in the mansion he inherited. After being personally converted by Darwin (on a visit to Darwin’s home), Huxley championed the evolutionary cause with everything he had. In the latter part of the 19th century, while *Haeckel labored earnestly on the European continent, Huxley was Darwin’s primary advocate in England.

The *X Club was a secret society in London which worked to further evolutionary thought and suppress scientific opposition to it. It was powerful, for all scientific papers considered by the Royal Society had to be first approved by this small group of nine members. Chaired by *Huxley, its members made contacts and powerfully affected British scientific associations (*Michael Pitman, Adam and Evolution, 1984, p. 64). " ‘But what do they do?’ asked a curious journalist. ‘They run British science,’ a professor replied, ‘and on the whole, they don’t do it badly’ " (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 467). In the 20th century, U.S. government agencies, working closely with the *National Science Federation and kindred organizations, have channeled funds for research to universities willing to try to find evidence for evolution. Down to the present day, the theorists are still trying to control the scientists.

The Oxford Debate was held in June 1860 at Oxford University, only seven months after the publication of *Darwin’s Origin of the Species. A special meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, it marked a major turning point in England,—just as the 1925 Scopes Trial would be the turning point in North America. Scientific facts had little to do with either event; both were just battles between personalities. In both instances, evolutionists won through ridicule. They dared not rely on scientific facts to support their case, because they had none.

Samuel Wilberforce, Anglican bishop of Oxford University, was scheduled to speak that evening in defense of creationism. *Huxley had lectured on behalf of evolution in many English cities and was not planning to attend that night. But *Chambers, a spiritualist adviser to Huxley, was impressed to find and tell him he must attend.

Wilberforce delivered a vigorous attack on evolution for half an hour before a packed audience of 700 people. His presentation was outstanding, and the audience was apparently with him. But then Wilberforce turned and rhetorically asked Huxley a humorous question, whether it was through his grandfather or his grandmother that Huxley claimed descent from an ape.

Huxley was extremely sharp-witted and, at the bishop’s question, he clasped the knee of the person sitting next to him, and said, "He is delivered into my hands!"

Huxley arose and worked the audience up to a climax, and then declared that he would feel no shame in having an ape as an ancestor, but would be ashamed of a brilliant man who plunged into scientific questions of which he knew nothing (John W. Klotz, "Science and Religion," in Studies in Creation, 1985, pp. 45-46).

At this, the entire room went wild, some yelling one thing and others another. On a pretext so thin, the evolutionists in England became a power which scientists feared to oppose. We will learn that ridicule heaped on ridicule, through the public press, accomplished the same results for American evolutionists in Dayton, Tennessee, in 1925.

The Orgueil Meteorite (1861) was one of many hoaxes perpetrated, to further the cause of evolution. Someone inserted various dead microbes, and then covered it over with a surface appearing like the meteorite. The objective was to show that life came from outer space. But the hoax was later discovered (*Scientific American, January 1965, p. 52). A remarkable number of hoaxes have occurred since then. Men, working desperately, have tried to provide scientific evidence that does not exist. In the mid-1990s, a meteorite "from Mars" with "dead organisms" on it was trumpeted in the press. But ignored were the conclusions of competent scientists, that the "discovery" was highly speculative.

*Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911). Galton was *Charles Darwin’s cousin who amplified on one of the theory’s logical conclusions. He declared that the "science" of "eugenics" was the key to humanity’s problems: Put the weak, infirm, and aged to sleep. *Adolf Hitler, an ardent evolutionist, used it successfully in World War II (*Otto Scott, "Playing God," in Chalcedon Report, No. 247, February 1986, p. 1).

*Wallace’s Break with *Darwin. Darwin’s close friend, Russell Wallace, eventually separated from Darwin’s position—a position he had given Darwin—when Wallace realized that the human brain was far too advanced for evolutionary processes to have produced it (Loren C. Eiseley, "Was Darwin Wrong about the Human Brain?" Harpers Magazine, 211:66-70, 1955).

*Herbert Spencer (1820-1903), along with certain other men (*Friedrich Nietzche, *Karl Marx, *Sigmund Freud, *John Dewey, etc.), introduced evolutionary modes and morality into social fields (sociology, psychology, education, warfare, economics, etc.) with devastating effects on the 20th century. Spencer, also a spiritist, was the one who initially invented the term, "evolution" (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 159; cf. 424). Spencer introduced sociology into Europe, clothing it in evolutionary terms. From there it traveled to America. He urged that the unfit be eliminated, so society could properly evolve (*Harry E. Barnes, Historical Sociology, 1948, p. 13). In later years, even the leading evolutionists of the time, such as Huxley and Darwin, became tired of the fact that Spencer could do nothing but theorize and knew so little of real-life facts.

Archaeopteryx (1861, 1877). These consisted of several fossils from a single limestone quarry in Germany, each of which the quarry owner sold at a high price. One appeared to possibly be a small dinosaur skeleton, complete with wings and feathers. European museums paid high prices for them. (As we will learn below, in 1985 Archaeopteryx was shown to be a fake.)

*Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), a teacher at the University of Jena in Germany, was the most zealous advocate of Darwinism on the continent in the 19th century. He drew a number of fraudulent charts (first published in 1868) which purported to show that human embryos were almost identical to those of other animals. Reputable scientists repudiated them within a few years, for embryologists recognized the deceit. (See chapter 16, Vestiges and Recapitulation on our website for the charts.) *Darwin and *Haeckel had a strong influence on the rise of world communism (*Daniel Gasman, Scientific Origins of National Socialism: Social Darwinism in Ernst Haeckel and the German Monist League, 1971, p. xvi).

*Marsh’s Horse Series (1870s). *Othniel C. Marsh claimed to have found 30 different kinds of horse fossils in Wyoming and Nebraska. He reconstructed and arranged them in a small-to-large evolutionary series, which was never in a straight line (*Encyclopedia Britannica, 1976 ed., Vol. 7, p. 13). Although displayed in museums for a time, the great majority of scientists later repudiated this "horse series" (*Charles Deperet, Transformations of the Animal World, p. 105; *G.A. Kerkut, Implications of Evolution, 1960, p. 149).

*Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900). *Nietzsche was a remarkable example of a man who fully adopted Darwinist principles. He wrote books declaring that the way to evolve was to have wars and kill the weaker races, in order to produce a "super race" (*T. Walter Wallbank and *Alastair M. Taylor, Civilization Past and Present, Vol. 2, 1949 ed., p. 274). *Darwin, in Origin of the Species, also said that this needed to happen. The writings of both men were read by German militarists and led to World War I. *Hitler valued both Darwin’s and Nietzche’s books. When Hitler killed 6 million Jews, he was only doing what Darwin taught.

It is of interest, that a year before he defended *John Scopes’ right to teach Darwinism at the Dayton "Monkey Trial," *Clarence Darrow declared in court that the murderous thinking of two young men was caused by their having learned *Nietzsche’s vicious Darwinism in the public schools (*W. Brigan, ed., Classified Speeches).

*Asa Gray was the first leading theistic evolutionary advocate in America, at the time when Darwin was writing his books. Gray, a Presbyterian, worked closely with *Charles W. Eliot, president of Harvard, in promoting evolution as a "Christian teaching," yet teaching long ages and the book of Genesis as a fable.

The Challenger was a British ship dispatched to find evidence, on the ocean bottom, of evolutionary change. During its 1872-1876 voyage, it carried on seafloor dredging, but found no fossils developing on the bottom of the ocean. By this time, it was obvious to evolutionists that no fossils were developing on either land or sea; yet they kept quiet about the matter. Over the years, theories, hoaxes, false claims, and ridicule favoring evolution were spread abroad; but facts refuting it, when found, were kept hidden.

*Karl Marx (1818-1883) is closely linked with Darwinism. That which *Darwin did to biology, Marx with the help of others did to society. All the worst political philosophies of the 20th century emerged from the dark cave of Darwinism. Marx was thrilled when he read Origin of the Species; and he immediately wrote Darwin and asked to dedicate his own major work, Das Kapital, to him. Darwin, in his reply, thanked him but said it would be best not to do so.

In 1866, Marx wrote to *Frederick Engels, that Origin of the Species contained the basis in natural history for their political and economic system for an atheist world. Engels, the co-founder of world communism with Marx and *Lenin, wrote to Karl Marx in 1859: "Darwin, whom I am just now reading, is splendid" (*C. Zirkle, Evolution, Marxian Biology, and the Social Scene, 1959, p. 85). In 1861, Marx wrote to Engels: "Darwin’s book is very important and serves me as a basis in natural selection for the class struggle in history" (*op. cit., p. 86). At Marx’s funeral, Engles said that, as Darwin had discovered the law of organic evolution in natural history, so Marx had discovered the law of evolution in human history (*Otto Ruhle, Karl Marx, 1948, p. 366).

As Darwin emphasized competitive survival as the key to advancement, so communism focused on the value of labor rather than the laborer. Like Darwin, Marx thought he had discovered the law of development. He saw history in stages, as the Darwinists saw geological strata and successive forms of life.

*William Grant Sumner (1840-1910) applied evolutionary principles to political economics at Yale University. He taught many of America’s future business and industrial leaders that strong business should succeed and the weak perish, and that to help the unfit was to injure the fit and accomplish nothing for society (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, pp. 59, 446, 72). Millionaires were, in his thinking, the "fittest." Modern laissez-faire capitalism was the result (*Gilman M. Ostrander, The Evolutionary Outlook: 1875-1900, 1971, p. 5).

*William James (1842-1910) was another evolutionist who influenced American thinking. His view of psychology placed the study of human behavior on an animalistic evolutionary basis.

Tidal Hypothesis Theory (1890). *George Darwin, son of *Charles Darwin, wanted to come up with something original, so he invented the theory that four million years ago the moon was pressed nearly against the earth, which revolved every five hours.—Then one day, a heavy tide occurred in the oceans, which lifted it out to its present location! Later proponents of George’s theory decided that the Pacific Basin is the hole the moon left behind, when those large ocean waves pushed it out into space.

3 - 1898 TO 1949

Bumpus’ Sparrows (1898). Herman Bumpus was a zoologist at Brown University. During the winter of 1898, by accident he carried out one of the only field experiments in natural selection. One cold morning, finding 136 stunned house sparrows on the ground, he tried to nurse them back to health. Of the total, 72 revived and 64 died. He weighed and carefully measured all of them, and found that those closest to the average survived best. This frequently quoted research study is another evidence that the animal or plant closest to the original species is the most hardy. Sub-species variations will not be as hardy, and evolution entirely across species (if the DNA code would permit it) would therefore be too weakened to survive (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 61).

Mendel’s research discovered. In 1900, three scientists independently discovered Gregor Mendel’s astounding research findings about heredity. In the years since then, genetic research has repeatedly confirmed that there are only changes within species—never cross-species changes (which would be true evolution). This is true of plants, animals, and even microbes.

*Hugo deVries (1848-1935) was a Dutch botanist and one of the three men who, in 1900, rediscovered Mendel’s paper on the law of heredity.

One day while working with primroses, deVries thought he had discovered a new species. This made headlines. He actually had found a new variety (sub-species) of the primrose, but deVries conjectured that perhaps his "new species" had suddenly sprung into existence as a "mutation." He theorized that new species "saltated" (leaped), that is, continually spring into existence. His idea is called the saltation theory.

This was a new idea; and, during the first half of the 20th century, many evolutionary biologists, finding absolutely no evidence supporting "natural selection," switched from natural selection ("Darwinism") to mutations ("neo-Darwinism") as the mechanism by which the theorized cross-species changes occurred.

Later in this book, we will discover that mutations cannot produce evolution either, for they are always harmful. In addition, decades of experimentation have revealed they never produce new species.

In order to prove the mutation theory, deVries and other researchers immediately began experimentation on fruit flies; and it has continued ever since—but totally without success in producing new species.

Ironically, deVries’ saltation theory was based on an observational error. In 1914 *Edward Jeffries discovered that deVries’ primrose was just a new variety, not a new species.

Decades later, it was discovered that most plant varieties are produced by variations in gene factors, rarely by mutations. Those caused by gene variations may be strong (although not as strong as the average original), but those varieties produced by mutations are always weak and have a poor survival rate. See chapter 10, Mutations, for much, much more on the mutation problem.

*Walter S. Sutton and *T. Boveri (1902) independently discovered chromosomes and the linkage of genetic characters. This was only two years after Mendel’s research was rediscovered.

Scientists were continually learning new facts about the fixity of the species.

*Thomas Hunt Morgan (1886-1945) was an American biologist who developed the theory of the gene. He found that the genetic determinants were present in a definite linear order in the chromosomes and could be somewhat "mapped." He was the first to work intensively with the fruit fly, Drosophila (*Michael Pitman, Adam and Evolution, 1984, p. 70). But research with fruit flies, and other creatures, has proved a total failure in showing mutations to be a mechanism for cross-species change (*Richard B. Goldschmidt, "Evolution, as Viewed by One Geneticist," American Scientist, January 1952, p. 94).

*H.J. Muller (1890-1967). Upon learning of the 1927 discovery that X-rays, gamma rays, and various chemicals could induce an extremely rapid increase of mutations in the chromosomes of test animals and plants, Muller pioneered in using X-rays to greatly increase the mutation rate in fruit flies. But all he and the other researchers found was that mutations were always harmful (*H.J. Muller, Time, November 11, 1946, p. 38; *E.J. Gardner, Principles of Genetics, 1964, p. 192; *Theodosius Dobzhansky, Genetics and the Origin of the Species, 1951, p. 73).

*Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was deeply indebted to the evolutionary training he received in Germany as a young man. He fully accepted it, as well as *Haeckel’s recapitulation theory. Freud began his Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (1916) with Haeckel’s premise: "Each individual somehow recapitulates in an abbreviated form the entire development of the human race" (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 177).

Freud’s "Oedipus complex" was based on a theory of "primal horde" he developed about a "mental complex" that caveman families had long ago. His theories of anxiety complexes, and "oral" and "anal" stages, etc., were based on his belief that our ancestors were savage.

*H.G. Wells (1866-1946), the science fiction pioneer, based his imaginative writings on evolutionary teachings. He had received a science training under Professor *Thomas H. Huxley, *Darwin’s chief defender.

*Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930), like a variety of other evolutionist leaders before and after, was an avid spiritist. Many of his mystery stories were based on evolutionary themes.

*George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) was so deeply involved in evolutionary theory, that he openly declared that he wrote his plays to teach various aspects of the theory (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 461).

Piltdown Man (1912). In 1912, parts of a jaw and skull were found in England and dubbed "Piltdown Man." News of it created a sensation. The report of a dentist, in 1916, who said someone had filed down the teeth was ignored. As we will learn below, in 1953 the fact that it was a total hoax was uncovered. This, like all the later evidences that our ancestors were part ape, has been questioned or repudiated by reputable scientists. See chapter 13, Ancient Man.

World War I (1917-1918). Darwinism basically taught that there is no moral code, our ancestors were savage, and civilization only progressed by violence against others. It therefore led to extreme nationalism, racism, and warfare through Nazism and Fascism. Evolution was declared to involve "natural selection"; and, in the struggle to survive, the fittest will win out at the expense of their rivals. *Frederich von Bernhard, a German military officer, wrote a book in 1909, extolling evolution and appealing to Germany to start another war. *Heinrich von Treitsche, a Prussian militarist, loudly called for war by Germany in order to fulfill its "evolutionary destiny" (*Heinrich G. von Treitsche, Politics, Vol. 1, pp. 66-67). Their teachings were fully adopted by the German government; and it only waited for a pretext to start the war (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 59).

Communist Darwinism. *Marx and *Engels’ acceptance of evolutionary theory made *Darwin’s theory the "scientific" basis of all later communist ideologies (*Robert M. Young, "The Darwin Debate," in Marxism Today, Vol. 26, April 1982, p. 21). Communist teaching declared that evolutionary change, which taught class struggle, came by revolution and violent uprisings. Communist dogma declares that Lamarckism (inheritance of acquired characteristics) is the mechanism by which this is done. Mendelian genetics was officially outlawed in Russia in 1948, since it was recognized as disproving evolution. Communist theorists also settled on "synthetic speciation" instead of natural selection or mutations as the mechanism for species change (*L.B. Halstead, "Museum of Errors," in Nature, November 20, 1980, p. 208). This concept is identical to the sudden change theory of *Goldschmidt and *Gould, which we will mention later.

*John Dewey (1859-1952) was another influential thought leader. A vigorous Darwinist, Dewey founded and led out in the "progressive education movement" which so greatly affected U.S. educational history. But it was nothing more than careful animal training (*Samuel L. Blumenfeld, NEA: Trojan Horse in American Education, 1984, p. 43). The purpose was to indoctrinate the youth into evolution, humanism, and collectivism. In 1933, Dewey became a charter member of the American Humanist Association and its first president. Its basic statement of beliefs, published that year as the Humanist Manifesto, became the unofficial framework of teaching in most school textbooks. The evolutionists recognized that they must gain control of all public education (*Sir Julian Huxley, quoted in *Sol Tax and *Charles Callender, eds., Evolution after Darwin, 3 vols., 1960). Historically, American education was based on morals and standards; but Dewey declared that, in order to be "progressive," education must leave "the past" and "evolve upward" to new, modern concepts.

The Scopes Trial (July 10 to July 21, 1925) was a powerful aid to the cause of evolution; yet scientific discoveries were not involved. That was fortunate; since (except for a single tooth, later disproved, and a few other frauds) the evolutionists had nothing worthwhile to present (*The World’s Most Famous Court Trial: A Complete Stenographic Report, 1925).

The ACLU (*American Civil Liberties Union) had been searching for someone they could use to test the Butler Act, which forbade the teaching of evolution in the public schools in Tennessee. *John Scopes (24 at the time) volunteered for the job. He later

privately admitted that he had never actually taught evolution in class, so the case was based on a fraud; he spent the time teaching them football maneuvers (*John Scopes, Center of the Storm, 1967, p. 60). But no matter, the ACLU wanted to so humiliate the State of Tennessee, that no other state would ever dare oppose the evolutionists. The entire trial, widely reported as the "Tennessee Monkey Trial," was presented to the public as something of a comic opera. (A trained ape was even sent in, to walk around on a chain in the streets of Dayton.) But the objective was deadly serious; and they succeeded very well. Although the verdict was against Scopes, America’s politicians learned the lesson: Do not oppose the evolutionists.

The Scopes trial, the first event nationally broadcast over the radio, was a major victory for evolutionists throughout the world. Ridicule, side issues, misinformation, and false statements were used to win the battle.

Nebraska Man Debunked (1922, 1928). In 1922 a single molar tooth was found and named Hesperopithecus, or "Nebraska Man." An artist was told to make an "ape-man" picture based on the tooth, which went around the world. Nebraska Man was a key evidence at the Scopes trial in July 1925. (The evolutionists had little else to offer!). *Grafton Smith, one of those involved in publicizing Nebraska Man, was knighted for his efforts in making known this fabulous find. When paleontologists returned to the site in 1928, they found the rest of the skeleton,—and discovered the tooth belonged to "an extinct pig"! (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 322). In 1972, living specimens of the same pig were found in Paraguay.

George McCready Price (1870-1963) had a master’s level degree, but not in science. Yet he was the staunchest opponent of evolution in the first half of the 20th century. He produced 38 books and numerous articles to various journals. Price was the first person to carefully research into the accumulated findings of geologists; and he discovered that they had no evidence supporting their claims about strata and fossils. Since his time, the situation has not changed (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 194).

Along with mutations, the study of fossils and strata ranks as the leading potential evidences supporting evolutionary claims. But no transitional species have been found. Ancient species (aside from the extinct ones) were like those today, except larger, and strata are generally missing and at times switched—with "younger" strata below "older." Because there is no fossil/strata evidence supporting evolution, the museums display dinosaurs and other extinct animals as proof that evolution has occurred. But extinction is not an evidence of evolution. Much more on this in chapter 12, Fossils and Strata.

*Oliver Wendel Holmes, Jr. (1841-1935), powerfully affected the U.S. Supreme Court in both viewpoint and legal precedents. He was forceful in his positions and a leading justice for 30 years. The prevalent view since his time is that law is a product of evolution and should continually evolve in accord with social policy. But this, of course, keeps taking America further and further from the U.S. Constitution.

*Vladimir (Nikolai) Lenin (1870-1924) and *Josef Stalin (1879-1953). Lenin was an ardent evolutionist who, in 1918, violently overthrew the Russian government and founded the Soviet Union. According to *Yaroslavsky, a close friend of his, at an early age, while attending a Christian Orthodox school, Stalin began to read *Darwin and became an atheist (*E. Yaroslavsky, Landmarks in the Life of Stalin, 1940, pp. 8-9). Stalin was head of the Soviet Union from 1924 to 1953. During those years, he was responsible for the death of millions of Russians who refused to yield to his slave-state tactics. The Soviet Union under Stalin was an outstanding example of Darwinist principles extended to an entire nation.

*Austin H. Clark (1880-1954), an ardent evolutionist, was on the staff of the Smithsonian Institute from 1908 to 1950 and a member of several important scientific organizations. A prominent scientist, he authored several books and about 600 scientific articles. But, after years of honestly trying to deal with the fact that

there is no evidence of cross-species change, in 1930 he wrote an astounding book, The New Evolution: Zoogenesis. In it, he cited fact after fact, disproving the possibility that major types of plants and animals could have evolved from one another. The book was breathtaking and could not be answered by any evolutionist. His alternate proposal, zoogenesis, was that every major type of plant and animal must have evolved—not from one another—but directly from dirt and water! (*A.H. Clark, The New Evolution: Zoogenesis, 1930, pp. 211, 100, 189, 196, 114). The evolutionary world was stunned into silence; for he was an expert who knew all the reasons why trans-species evolution was impossible.

*Richard Goldschmidt (1878-1958). The same year that *Clark wrote his book (1930), Goldschmidt gave up also. An earnest evolutionist, he had dedicated his life to proving it by applying X-rays and chemicals to fruit flies at the University of California, Berkeley, and producing large numbers of mutations in them. After 25 exhausting years, in which he had worked with more generations of fruit flies than humans and their ape ancestors are conjectured to have lived on our planet, Goldschmidt decided that he must figure out a different way that cross-species evolution could occur. For the next ten years, as he continued his fruit fly research, he gathered additional evidence of the foolishness of evolutionary theory;—and, in 1940, wrote his book, The Material Basis of Evolution, in which he exploded point after point in the ammunition box of the theory. He literally tore it to pieces (*Norman Macbeth, Darwin Retried, 1974, p. 152). No evolutionist could answer him. Like them, he was a confirmed evolutionary atheist, but he was honestly facing the facts. After soundly destroying their theory, he announced his new concept: a megaevolution in which one life form suddenly emerged completely out of a different one! He called them "hopeful monsters." One day a fish laid some eggs, and some of them turned into a frog. A snake laid an egg, and a bird hatched from it! Goldschmidt asked for even bigger miracles than A.H. Clark had proposed! (*Steven M. Stanley, Macroevolution: Pattern and Process, 1979, p. 159).

American Humanist Association (1933). "Humanism" is the modern word for "atheism." As soon as it was formed in 1933, the AHA began working closely with science federations, to promote evolutionary theory and, with the ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union), to provoke legal action in the courts forcing Americans to accept evolutionary beliefs. Signatories included *Julian Huxley (*T.H. Huxley’s grandson), *John Dewey, *Margaret Sanger, *H.J. Muller, *Benjamin Spock, *Erich Froom, and *Carl Rogers (*American Humanist Association, promotional literature).

*Trofim Lysenko (1893-1976) rose to power in the 1930s in the USSR, by convincing the government that he could create a State Science that combined Darwinian evolution theory in science, animal husbandry, and agriculture with Marxist theory. With *Stalin’s hearty backing, Lysenko became responsible for the death of thousands, including many of Russia’s best scientists. Lysenko banned Mendelian genetics as a bourgeois heresy. He was ousted in 1965, when his theories produced agricultural disaster for the nation. (He claimed to be able to change winter wheat into spring wheat, through temperature change, and wheat into rye in one generation.)

*Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) was chancellor of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. He carefully studied the writings of *Darwin and *Nietzsche. Hitler’s book, Mein Kampf, was based on evolutionary theory (*Sir Arthur Keith, Evolution and Ethics, 1947, p. 28). The very title of the book ("My Struggle" [to survive and overcome]) was copied from a Darwinian expression. Hitler believed he was fulfilling evolutionary objectives by eliminating "undesirable individuals and inferior races" in order to produce Germany’s "Master Race" (*Larry Azar, Twentieth Century in Crisis, 1990, p. 180). (Notice that the "master race" people always select the race they are in as the best one.)

*Benito Mussolini (1883-1945), the Italian Fascist dictator, was also captivated by *Darwin and *Nietzsche; and Neitzsche said he got his ideas from Darwin (*R.E.D. Clark, Darwin: Before and After, 1948, p. 115). Mussolini believed that violence is basic to social transformation (*Encyclopedia Britannica, 1962, Vol. 16, p. 27).

Coelacanth Discovered (1938). It was once an "index fossil, used to date a sedimentary strata. Evolutionists declared it as having been dead for 70 million years. If their strata theory was correct, no living specimens could occur, since no coelacanth fossils had been found in the millions of years of higher strata. But then, on December 25, 1938, a trawler fishing off South Africa brought up one that was 5 feet in length. More were found later. Many other discoveries helped disprove the evolutionists’ fossil/strata theories. Even living creatures like the trilobite have been found! (*"Living Fossil Resembles Long-extinct Trilobite," Science Digest, December 1957).

Hiroshima (1945) is an evolutionist’s paradise; for it is filled with people heavily irradiated, which—according to evolutionary mutation theory—should be able to produce children which are new, different, and a more exalted species. But this has not happened. Only injury and death resulted from the August 6, 1945, nuclear explosion. Mutations are always harmful and frequently lethal within a generation or two (*Animal Species and Evolution, p. 170, *H.J. Muller, Time, November 11, 1946, p. 38).

First Mechanism Changeover (1940s). *Darwin originally wrote that random activity naturally selects itself into improvements (a concept which any sensible person will say is totally impossible). In a later book (Descent of Man, 1871), Darwin abandoned "natural selection" as hopeless, and returned to Lamarckism (the scientifically discredited inheritance of acquired characteristics; if you build strong muscles, your son will inherit them). But evolutionists remained faithful to Darwin’s original mechanism (natural selection) for decades. They were called "Darwinists." But, by the 1940s, many were switching over to mutations as the mechanism of cross-species change. Its advocates were called "neo-Darwinists." The second changeover would come in the 1980s.

Radiocarbon dating (1946). *Willard Libby and his associates discovered carbon 14 (C 14) as a method for the dating of earlier organic materials. But later research revealed that its inaccuracy increases in accordance with the actual age of the material (*C.A. Reed, "Animal Domestication in the Prehistoric Near East," in Science, 130, 1959, p. 1630; University of California at Los Angeles, "On the Accuracy of Radiocarbon Dates," in Geochronicle, 2, 1966 [Libby’s own laboratory]).

Big Bang Hypothesis (1948) Astronomers were totally buffaloed as to where matter and stars came from. In desperation, *George Gamow and two associates dreamed up the astonishing concept that an explosion of nothing produced hydrogen and helium, which then shot outward, then turned and began circling and pushing itself into our present highly organized stars and galactic systems. This far-fetched theory has repeatedly been opposed by a number of scientists (*G. Burbidge, "Was There Really a Big Bang?" in Nature 233, 1971, pp. 36, 39). By the 1980s, astronomers which continued to oppose the theory began to be relieved of their research time at major observatories ("Companion Galaxies Match Quasar Redshifts: The Debate Goes On," Physics Today, 37:17, December 1984). In spite of clear evidence that the theory is unscientific and unworkable, evolutionists refuse to abandon it.

Steady State Universe Theory (1948). In 1948, *Fred Hoyle, working with *Hermann Bondi and *Thomas Gold, proposed this theory as an alternative to the Big Bang. It declared that matter is continually "blipping" into existence throughout the universe (*Peter Pocock and *Pat Daniels, Galaxies, p. 114; *Fred Hoyle, Frontiers of Astronomy, 1955, pp. 317-318). We will learn that in 1965, the theory was abandoned. *Hoyle said it disagreed with several scientific facts.