Here are scientific facts about DNA and cells, which disproves the popular notion that living creatures can evolve into new species. Evolutionary theory is a myth. God created everything; the evidence clearly points to it. Nothing else can explain the mountain of evidence. This is science vs. evolution—a Creation-Evolution Encyclopedia, brought to you by Creation Science Facts.
CONTENTS: DNA and Cells: 1
Page numbers without book references refer to the book, DNA AND CELLS, from which these facts are summarized. An asterisk ( * ) by a name indicates that person is not known to be a creationist. Of over 4,000 quotations in the set of books this Encyclopedia is based on, only 164 statements are by creationists.
DNA provides the basic codes that each plant and animal is made according to. The evolutionists' problem is the fact that DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) has such complicated codes and locks each type of creature into its own pattern. Because of this, it would be impossible for evolution (which is the origin of species and change across species) to occur.
Inside every cell in your body is a microscopic ball. Inside it is a coiled six-foot strip of code! It is your DNA code, the primary code for your entire body. The whole thing is amazing.
In the center of each cell is a nucleus, and, among the complicated things in it, are 23 pairs of chromosomes. These are the strips, and on them are genes. They are like beads on a chain. Each gene has a large number of DNA units. There are about 60 thousand billion (60,000 x 1,000,000,000) cells in your body! Each one has your complete code. This code fixes your physical characteristics; it is your gene pool. All the data in each code set is equivalent to an unabridged dictionary.
It is clear that only a super mind could make all this! God made you; you did not make yourself. Seawater did not slosh around and do it.—pp. 11-14.
Translation package needed. Not only was that astounding DNA code needed in your body for it to exist, but a translation code had to be there also!
Termed an "adapter function," this machinery had to be in your body—the first instant it came into being. Yet it could not be produced by accident.
No scientist can begin to explain how your body obtained the translation package, much less the DNA code.—pp. 14-15.
Messenger RNA. Not only is the DNA code and code translator needed, but also messenger units.
These are called "messenger RNA" molecules, or "s-RNA."
There is a specific s-RNA for each individual amino acid. They pass the message for the code, so that a certain type of amino acid can be made.
So you are a living computer and did not know it. Throughout the body and in each cell, we find the most advanced scientific technology and apparatus. Just as the "byte" is the basic eight-unit binary pattern in computers, the "codon" is the basic three-nucleotide pattern in living creatures.—p. 15.
The biological compiler. Then there is the "t-DNA," This element carries out the code tasks. Without it, the code would be useless.—pp. 15-16.
DNA indexing. Every computer requires a data bank, so the information can be accessed. The DNA contains the data bank, but "indexes" are needed in order to find it. These are different than the translators. They are non-DNA chemicals which function to locate specifically needed information.
The production of materials by DNA is triggered by these indexes. Their presence, in turn, initiates further indexing as new materials are made. Additional indexes are to be found in specialized functions, such as nervous, muscular, hormonal, circulatory, etc. The utter complexity of all this is astounding.—p. 16.
Cell switching. This function is needed to switch the DNA codes from one process to another. The signal to do it is provided by other functions, but the actual switch is called the "cell switch."—p. 16.
An exact fit required. Every aspect of the DNA function must be perfect. The polynucleotide strands have to be formed in exactly the shape needed to neatly wrap about the DNA helix molecule. There must be a 100 percent fit.
Scientists, working in million-dollar laboratories, are unable to accurately synthesize the polynucleotides or make them in predetermined sizes and shapes.—p. 16.
Not randomness, but intelligence. It is obvious that nothing about this is random. Everything reveals highly intelligent designing and production. Obviously, a tiny cell cannot be that smart. Who keeps it running right? Who designed it in the beginning? Surely, it did not come together by chance.—pp. 16-17.
Multi-gene characteristics. Did you know that each characteristic in a living creature is controlled by several different genes? This only makes the process all the more complicated.
There would be no way the DNA code could gradually "evolve." Everything had to be there from the beginning.—p. 17.
Math looks at DNA. DNA is not the result of an accident. The mathematical possibilities that all this intertwining of codes and processors could come together by accident—is totally impossible. That is what the experts tell us.
For example, we are told that the information content of the gene in its complexity must be as great as the enzyme it controls. Yet just one medium-sized protein will consist of about 300 amino acids! That protein was made by a DNA gene, which would have to have about 1,000 nucleotides in its chain. Since there are four kinds of nucleotides in a single DNA chain, one with 1,000 links could exist in 41000 different forms. —4^1000 = 1.15•10^602 that is 1 followed by 602 zeros, which is more than billions of billions of billions of billions of billions of billions … the amount of electrons in the whole universe.
Yet all this complexity is required to make the simplest living creature.
Everything had to be in place at once from the beginning. Whether it be a one-celled or a multi-celled creature, all the cellular functions had to be there from the start.—pp. 17-18.
Goley's machine. A communications engineer tried to figure the odds for bringing a non-living organism with few parts (only 1,500) up to the point of being able to reproduce itself. Requiring 1,500 right choices from the beginning, he found there was only one chance in 10450 that there could be success. That is 1 followed by 450 zeros.
Yet there are only 1080 particles in all the universe!—pp. 18, 20.
Too many nucleotides. Actually, there are too many nucleotides in DNA for Goley's machine! There are 5,375 nucleotides in the DNA of an extremely small bacterial virus (theta-x-174). There are about 3 million nucleotides in a single cell bacteria. There are over 3 billion nucleotides in the DNA of a mammalian cell. (People and most animals are mammals.)
A "nucleotide" is a complex chemical structure composed of certain chemicals. Each one of the thousands in your DNA cells are aligned sequentially in a very specific order! Imagine 3 billion complicated chemical links, each one of which has to be in a precisely correct sequence!—p. 20.
Not possible by chance. The possibility that a pile of sand or a mud puddle could make any living creature—is totally remote. It just could not happen.
The truth is that something totally impossible can never happen. If I throw a book into the air, it will never change into a live pigeon, never.
The evolutionary error is that, if something is totally impossible, it will eventually happen, if given enough time. Accepting such an error is self-deception in the extreme.
Wysong explains why evolution is totally impossible:
"1 / 1089190 DNA molecules, on the average, must form to provide the one chance of forming the specific DNA sequence necessary to code the 124 proteins. 1089190 DNAs would weigh 1089147 times more than the earth."—p. 20.
DNA different in each species. Although it is utterly impossible for DNA to be formed by chance for even one species,—the DNA codes for each species is different from another! This only multiplies the odds against all the living creatures in the world having been formed by chance! (By "species," we mean basic kinds; the "species" listed by biologists are sometimes varieties of a single true species.)—pp. 20-21.
Complexities of protein. The complexities of protein are so great, that the various kinds (of which there are 20 essential types) could never have been made by chance.—pp. 21-23.
Synthesized proteins. Scientists are now able to make protein from chemicals. Evolutionists claim that, therefore, seawater could do it by chance also. But keep this in mind:
The scientists have million-dollar laboratories, and are specially trained. They have to purchase special chemicals made by chemical companies. Yet the proteins they produce are random types. It is impossible to make them in the right pattern or sequence. What they get is in no particular sequence or use. It is also impossible to make only left-handed ones, which are the only kind in animals.—pp. 23-24.
Consider the chances. What are the chances of a million-dollar laboratory correctly synthesizing left-hand amino acids for one small protein molecule? It is 1 in 10210. That is 1 with 210 zeros after it.
To properly understand the immense size of these impossible chances, consider this:
Ten billion years is 1018 seconds. The earth weighs 1026 ounces. The entire universe has a diameter of only 1028 inches. There are 1080 elementary (subatomic) particles in the universe.
Now, please! Compare these numbers with the inconceivably larger numbers needed to accidently produce DNA or protein!
In order to succeed, evolution requires total impossibilities!—pp. 24-25.
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